Affordable Broadband in India using Backhaul in TV White Space

TV band spectrum utilization study in three cities

In order to estimate the available TV white space, measurements were performed in three cities, Mumbai, Pune and Ajmer. In each city, spectrum scans were observed in the 470-806 MHz band and these measurements were taken at several locations within the city. It has been observed that in Mumbai the entire band 470-806 MHz is unutilized for TV transmissions, while in Ajmer and Pune, one channel operates in the 470-585 MHz band. However, in each of the three cities, a large portion of the observed spectrum (336 MHz!) is unutilized for TV transmission.

Spectrum utilization for the 470-806 MHz band in Mumbai, Pune and Ajmer.

Assessment of available TV White Space in India

Empirical estimates of the available TV white space in the 470-590 MHz band has been carried out in four zones of India. To carry out this analysis, following TV tower information has been obtained from Doordarshan.

  1. Location of TV tower
  2. Operating frequency
  3. Transmission power
  4. Height of TV tower

Estimation of the available TV white space was carried out using two methods, the FCC Regulations and the protection and pollution viewpoints described by Mubaraq Mishra and Anant Sahai in ‘How much TV white space is there?’. Results of our analysis can be summarized in the following plots and graphs.


The findings of our analysis are summarized as below.

  • Using FCC regulations, on an average 94.97% of the total area in India have all 15 channels (120 MHz) available as white space
  • Using pollution viewpoint, with γ= 15 dB, on an average 88.82% of the total area in India have all 15 channels available
  • Using protection viewpoint, with ψ=1 dB, on an average 78.82% of the total area in India has all 15 channels available
  • Out of the 15 UHF TV channels (470-590 MHz), the average number of TV channels available for secondary usage is above 14 (112MHz) in each of the four zones.