Introduction to operational amplifiers: The difference amplifier and the ideal operational amplifier models, concept of negative feedback and virtual short, Analysis of simple operational amplifier circuits,Frequency response of amplifiers, Bode plots.Feedback: Feedback topologies and analysis for discrete transistor amplifiers, stability of feedback circuits using Barkhausen criteria.Linear applications of operational amplifiers: Instrumentation and Isolation amplifiers, Current and voltage sources, Active filters.Non-linear applications of operational amplifiers: Comparators, clippers and clampers, Linearization amplifiers; Precision rectifiers, Logarithmic amplifiers, multifunction circuits and true rms convertors.
Waveform Generation: sinusoidal feedback oscillators, Relaxation oscillators, square-triangle oscillators
Real operational amplifiers: Current sources and active loads, difference, intermediate and output stages including Miller capacitors for frequency computation, Operational amplifier parameters; Effects of real operational amplifier parameters on circuit performance.
Analog and Digital interface circuits: A/D, D/A Converters, S/H circuits and multiplexers.
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A.S.Sedra and K.C. Smith,Microelectronic Circuits, Saunder's College Publishing,Edition IV
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