Introduction to operational amplifiers: The difference amplifier and the ideal operational amplifier models, concept of negative feedback and virtual short, Analysis of simple operational amplifier circuits, Frequency response of amplifiers, Bode plots.
Feedback: Feedback topologies and analysis for discrete transistor amplifiers, stabillity of feedback circuits using Barkhausen criteria.Linear applications of operational amplifiers: Instrumentation and Isolation amplifiers, Current and voltage sources, Active filters. Non-linear applications of operational amplifiers: Comparators, clippers and clampers, Linearization amplifiers, Precision rectifiers, Logarithmic amplifiers, multifunction circuits and true rms convertors.Waveform Generation:sinusoidal feedback oscillators, Relaxation oscillators, square-triangle oscillators.
Real operational amplifiers: Current sources and active loads, difference, intermediate and output stages including Miller capacitors for frequency computation; Operational amplifier parameters; Effects of real operational amplifier parameters on circuit performance.
Analog and Digital interface circuits: A/D, D/A Converters, S/H circuits and multiplexers.
J.V. Wait, L.P. Huelsman and GA Korn, Introduction to Operational Amplifier theory and applications, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill,New York, 1992.
J. Millman and A. Grabel, Microelectronics, 2nd edition, McGraw Hill, 1988.
P. Horowitz and W. Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, 1989.
A.S. Sedra and K.C.Smith,Microelectronic Circuits, Saunder's College Publishing, 1991.