Philosophy of digital and microprocessor/microcontroller based instruments.;Time measurement techniques : Time standards; Measurement of time interval between events, order of events, Vernier technique, Very low time, period, phase, time constant measurements;Frequency measurement techniques : Frequency, ratio and product, high and low frequency measurements; Deviation meter and tachometer, Peak/valley recorder.;Programmable circuits : Programmmable resistors, amplifiers, filters.;Digital to Analog Converters: Programmable amplifiers as DACs, Multi-stage WR DACs, Weighted current-, weighted reference voltage-, weighted charge-DACs; Ladder DACs, Design of DACs with respect to spread and total resistance; Hybrid multiplier and divider.;Analog to Digital Converters: V/f and V/t converters, Direct ADCs, ramp, tracking, dual slope, successive approximation and flash types; Multi-stage flash type ADCs, DVM and its design.;Voltage ratio measurement techniques : Digital ohmmeter, capacitance meter; impedance meters (polar and cartesin types); Decibel meters; Q meter tan-delta meter; Modulation index meter.;Sampling theory and its applications in current, voltage, power, energy measurements.;Elements of digital signal processing : FFT, DHT, digital filters.
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D. J. DeFatta, J. G. Lucas and W. , Digital Signal Processing, J Wiley and Sons, , 1988.