It is quite well known now that the global energy demand has been increasing at very rapid pace with world population growth and the energy sources are getting depleted at a faster pace than before. It is the time that whole human race should think seriously on this most important issue before it is too late. The governments all over the world and scientists have started looking for new and sustained energy sources. The conventional energy sources are being revisited and alternate energy sources are being thoroughly investigated. The dependence on thermal energy utilizing fossil fuels and oil has to be reduced to the minimum as their sources are rapidly diminishing. Another energy source, the nuclear energy, once considered to be the most sustainable source of energy is being looked with doubt due to dangers involved, particularly after reactor explosion in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan due to powerful earthquake triggered Tsunami on March 11, 2011. Many countries are already seriously thinking to close nuclear power plants within a decade. The energy research in the areas of solar, wind, geo-thermal etc. have becomeworld-wide hot topicsthese days . But none of these seems to be ready to become the viable source of energy yet. Just take the case of solar energy, even after 40 yrs of research the conversion efficiency has not gone beyond 14% at the best. This suggests that we have to investigate other energy resources and entirely new concepts in this area including getting rid of electricity completely. This paper is outlines the energy demand and electricity in daily life, energy challenges for microwave engineers with a focus on solar satellite power stations (SSPS) in outer space and energy from electromagnetic wave radiation in the atmosphere. Similarly the optics engineers have to conduct indepth study of electron-photon relationship and future energy concepts of utilizing solar energy in the form of photons as photocitywithout conversion to electricity. The worldwide photocity grids would provide new research directions to network engineers similar to optical communication networks.
Banmali S. Rawat was born in Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. He received BSEE, MSEE degrees from the Indian Institute of Technology, (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi and Ph.D. (ECE) from Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India in 1968, 1970 and 1976, respectively. He was recipient of National Merit Scholarship, UGC Fellowship, Atomic Energy Commission Fellowship, United Nations Fellowship and the University Gold Medal for first rank in MSEE. He was a faculty member with the MMM Engineering College, Gorakhpur and Instrumentation Engineer in the West Coast Paper Mills before starting his Ph.D. in 1972. He joined the Defense R & D Organization (DRDO) as Senior Scientist in 1975 and worked on various research projects in microwave systems/circuits, microwave/millimeter wave integrated circuits for radar and communication systems. He became Associate Professor in 1978 and Professor/Head of the Electronics Engineering Department, Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering College, University of Gorakhpur, India in 1981. In 1981 he joined the Electrical Engineering Department, University of North Dakota, USA and was a Professor until 1988 before moving to the University of Nevada, Reno, USA, as Professor/Head-Electrical Engineering & Computer Science Department and is continuing as a Professor. During his long teaching career he has been very active in developing new courses, laboratories and programs in Electromagnetics, Microwave Engineering, Microwave Integrated Circuits, Optical Fiber Communications, Optical Networking, Optical Sensors and other related areas. He has been teaching various courses in these areas since 1978 and is continuously moving in the cutting edge technological areas. He has done extensive research in these areas with over 200 research publications in national/international reputed journals and reviewed conference proceedings. His recent research focus has been on microstrip couplers/filters on defective ground structures (DGS) using anisotropic substrates, optically controlled couplers, optical fiber sensors, DWDM technology with secured optical communication, recycling of light, collection of energy from atmosphere and THz band nanoantennas. He has presented invited papers in many scientific conferences/ universities all over the world. He has been consultant to IBM, EF Johnson Co., UPS, Ikanos Communications, Hytek Microsystems etc. Besides these important positions, Dr. Rawat has been Visiting Professor in the Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic (2013), Kyushu University, Japan (2005), Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany (2002), University of New South Wales, Australia (2000-2001), Visiting Senior Scientist in the Advanced Telecommunication Research (ATR) Institute, Kyoto, Japan (2000), Visiting Professor in Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Brest, France (1998), JSPS Visiting Professor in the Kyushu University, Japan (1997-98) and NASA Summer Professor in the Kennedy Space Center, Florida in 1997 and 1999. Dr. Rawat has been listed in "Who's Who in Technology Today", "The International Directory of Distinguished Leadership", "Who's Who in Electromagnetics", Who's Who in America", "American Men and Women of Science", "Who's Who Among Asian Americans", "Who's Who in the World" and "Who's Who in Science and Engineering". He was invited by the United Nations as an International Expert in Microwaves and Optical Technology under TOKTEN and UNIDO programs in 1989, 1992 and 1994. He has Chaired/Organized many national/international symposia/conferences and has been the Keynote Speaker, Plenary Session Chair, Technical Program Chair and Editor of several Conference Proceedings. He is an Advisory Board Member and Chapter author for the "Electrical Engineering Handbook", published by CRC Press/IEEE Press. He has been reviewer for IEEE, IEE, Intl. Journal of Electronics, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves & Applications and Indian Jr of Radio and Space Physics and book reviewer for John Wiley, McGraw-Hill, Prentice Hall and other publishers. Dr. Rawat has been Chair of IEEE Northern Nevada Section. He is the Founder/Chair of the "International Symposium on Microwave and Optical Technology (ISMOT)", Founder/Chair of the IEEE MTTS/PS Chapter of Northern Nevada since 2000, Founder/Editor-in-Chief of the online "International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology (IJMOT)" since 2005 and Founder/President of the International Academy of Microwave and Optical Technology (IAMOT) since 2012.