Internet of everything (IoE) promises to address problems in healthcare, mobility, security, energy and water management using billions of connected sensor systems deployed all around us. These systems integrate sensors, sensor interfaces and communication circuits into tiny devices. However, it is often unclear as to how their specifications are defined for design. What should be their power consumption, cost, lifetime, noise, bandwidth, linearity etc.? How to choose the right technology for their implementation? What are the practical challenges of deploying these devices? I will attempt to provide answers to these questions with a specific example of designing a miniature flow cytometer. A flow cytometer is a diagnostic tool used to count specific cells in a biological sample. Currently, optical flow cytometry is the most common technique used for this purpose. The centralized nature of this test, due to time-consuming sample preparation and high cost, prevents its real-time use by doctors. I will present a novel approach of counting specific cells with a "chip-scale magnetic flow cytometer" to address these challenges. Looking into the future, I will talk about an emerging sensor system, a LiDAR, that can help autonomous machines navigate in dense areas, assist in disaster relief and in medical emergencies. It can also be used for intrusion detection, industrial automation or as an aid for visually impaired. Here, I will present my vision of integrating photonics with CMOS-ICs to design miniature LiDARs.
Pramod received his B.Tech degree in Electronics Communication Engineering from NITK Surathkal, M.E degree in Micro-electronics Systems from IISc, Bangalore and PhD. degree from Dept. of EECS at University of California, Berkeley. Currently, he is a Research Engineer at Bosch Research and Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA. He was awarded “The Alumni Award” from IISc Bangalore in 2011, Analog Devices Inc. “Outstanding Designer Award” in 2014 and IEEE Solid State Circuits Society “Pre-doctoral Achievement Award” in 2015. His research interests include: ultrasound based diagnostics, point-of-care bio-sensors, MEMS interfaces and silicon-photonics.